HUMAN waste disposal and the quality of water consumed by villagers have been identified as the major causes of typhoid at Draubuta in the interior of Navosa.
Health Ministry national adviser communicable diseases Doctor Mike Kama said the findings were reported by the inter-sectoral team investigating the situation at Draubuta.
He said it could be presumed that the risk factors for typhoid transmission found there were no different from that found in other typhoid-affected villages in the Western Division's mountainous localities.
"Human waste disposal, the number, design and location of the toilets were not conducive to environmental sanitary standards," Mr Kama said.
"Domesticated animals roamed freely in the village and around houses and there was an attempt to control the movement of animals.
"Water is untreated from the source right through. The source is a spring, it is unprotected and easily accessible to both humans and animal. Water accessibility is an issue, there are only six standpipes in the village which are located in the middle of the village far away from the toilets.
"The toilets have no wash basins nearby, users have to walk to the standpipes to wash hands so at most times hand washing after toilets or before preparing food does not happen."
Mr Kama said there was also no identified space on the outskirts of the village where the 50 households could dump food or other household refuse.